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Microhaematuria Complementary to ultrasound and cystoscopy after excluding infection, trauma, intensive exercise, mentrual bleeding and kidney disease. Radiography, retrograde urography. 5 — MRI urography. 4 — CT, abdomen and pelvis. 4. CT may follow intravenous pyelogram or ultrasonography if initial findings are ambiguous.
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3 - Examples for abnormal findings. 4 - Studies comparing IVU accuracy with KUB & USG with CT Scan. Findings from an initial cost analysis support further research and reconsideration of the role of computed tomography urography for imaging evaluation in patients with asymptomatic microhematuria, according to urologists from the University of Alabama at Birmingham. An algorithm evaluates the CT scan and assesses whether renal calculi are present, absent, or undetermined. If present, it then counts the number of calculi in each kidney and measures the largest on each side.
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Even, for a four-phase CT urography protocol, the calculated average effective dose is between 25 and 35 mSv [27–32]. Computed Tomography Urography.
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It gives both anatomical and functional information, albeit with a relatively higher dose of radiation. Se hela listan på pubs.rsna.org CT Urography Standard CT urography consists of unenhanced, nephrographic, and pyelographic phases. CT urography is an excellent technique for the evaluation of urinary tract calculi and renal masses, having high Compression, an IV saline bolus, and diuretics have been used to optimize ureteric CT Urography. If your physician has ordered a CT urography exam, you should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to your exam. You may be given a gown to wear during the procedure. Metal objects including jewelry, eyeglasses, dentures and hairpins may affect the CT images and should be left at home or removed prior to your exam. With the widespread implementation of CT urography, it is critical for radiologists to understand normal ureteral anatomy and the varied appearance of pathologic ureteral conditions at CT urography.
During a CT urogram, an X-ray dye (iodine contrast solution) is injected into a vein in your hand or arm. The dye flows into your kidneys, ureters and bladder, outlining each of these body parts. X-ray pictures are taken at specific times during the exam, allowing your doctor can clearly see your urinary tract and look for any abnormalities. Over the past decade, computed tomographic (CT) urography has emerged as the primary imaging modality for evaluating the urinary tract in various clinical settings, including the initial workup of hematuria.
contrast CT urography phases in bladder cancer detection.
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Comparison of quality of urinary bladder filling in CT
Wang et al.  found that approximately two-thirds of tumors smaller than 1 cm were undetectable on CT urography. In order to do this, several measures may be taken to minimize the amount of unopacified urine in the bladder. Patients can be asked to void completely prior to CT urography. Alternatively, patients can be asked to roll over on the CT table several times and/or to ambulate just prior to excretory phase image acquisition. 1.